Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

3850 Grand View Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066

(310)391-6741

marvistavet.com

AMOXICILLIN / CLAVULANATE

(for veterinary information only)

 

BRAND NAME: CLAVAMOX

 

AVAILABLE
IN ORAL SUSPENSION &
62.5 mg, 125 mg, 250 mg,
375 mg, 500 mg,
625 mg, 1000 mg
TABLETS
AS WELL AS CHEWABLES

 

HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

Alexander Fleming wiki

Alexander Fleming
(Photocredit: Public Domain graphic via Wikimedia Commons)

Howard Walter Florey 1945 wiki

Howard Florey
(Photocredit: Public Domain graphic via Wikimedia Commons)

Ernst Boris Chain 1945 wiki

Ernst Chain
(Photocredit: Public Domain graphic via Wikimedia Commons)

Thanks to work by Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Howard Florey ( 1898-1968) and Ernst Chain (1906-1979), penicillin was first produced on a large scale for human use in 1943. At that time, the development of a pill that could reliably kill bacteria was remarkable and many lives were saved during World War II because this medication was available.

But quickly, it became obvious that this new "wonder drug" could bear improvement. For example:

  • Penicillin is not well absorbed from the intestinal tract meaning that at least 70% of an oral dose is wasted.
  • Penicillin is also a short-acting medication, with half of the amount circulating being removed from the body every half hour.
  • Not all bacteria have the type of cell wall which is susceptible to destruction by penicillin. (Bacteria are classified as Gram negative or Gram positive, depending on the cell wall characteristics. Penicillin is able to punch holes through the Gram positive cell wall but is not very effective against the Gram negative cell wall.)
  • Staphylococci (an important group of bacteria) have developed an enzyme to break the penicillin molecule apart and are thus rarely susceptible to penicillin.

Amoxicillin represents a synthetic improvement upon the original penicillin molecule. Amoxicillin is better able to resist damage from stomach acid so less of an oral dose is wasted. While it is still susceptible to destruction by staphylococcal enzymes, it does have a much broader spectrum against the Gram negative cell wall and is able to last a bit longer.

Clavamox represents the answer to the Staphylococcus problem. By adding “Clavulanic acid,” the penicillin structure was protected and the antibiotic could be used effectively against Staph. infections.

 

USES OF THIS MEDICATION

Amoxicillin is regarded as having a fairly broad spectrum against many bacteria thus it is used both on organisms known to be sensitive to it plus it is a good selection when the sensitivity of bacteria is unknown. It is especially helpful in anaerobic infections (those which grow without the benefit of oxygen). Typical uses might include:

In short, anything amoxicillin can do, the combination drug will also do PLUS the combination can kill Staphylococci.

  

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS

When the organism in a serious infection cannot be isolated, a common strategy is to attempt to "cover" for all possible bacteria. The amoxicillin-clavulanate combination is frequently used concurrently with other antibiotics for this purpose. A synergistic combination is believed to occur between amoxicillin and members of the quinolone class of antibiotic (enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin etc.)

Methotrexate, a common chemotherapy agent, can build up to toxic levels when used at the same time as amoxicillin.

 

SIDE EFFECTS

Some individuals experience nausea with this medication. Giving the medication with food seems to reduce this effect.

 

SPECIAL CAUTIONS

The oral suspension should be refrigerated, though if it is mistakenly left out of the refrigerator for one day, this is not a problem. The oral suspension should be discarded after 10 days.

Amoxicillin may be given with or without food.

Amoxicillin will cross the placenta in a pregnant patient but is felt to be safe for use during pregnancy.

Human formulations have differing amounts of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and strengths are usually expressed only in the amounts of amoxicillin present. It may be challenging to find a human product that is truly comparable to the veterinary product.

 

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Page last updated: 8/31/2017