Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

3850 Grand View Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066

(310)391-6741

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HERPES VIRAL CONJUNCTIVITIS (FELINE)

HERPES VIRAL CONJUNCTIVITIS
A FELINE PROBLEM

 

The conjunctival membranes of the eye are basically the “pink part” under the eyelids and the lining of the eyelids themselves. When they are irritated, they redden and can become itchy, dry, and uncomfortable. The cornea, or clear dome-like covering of the eye can become involved in the inflammation. It can become cloudy or even ulcerated. Tear production can be reduced leading to a chronic dry, uncomfortable eye.


(original graphic by marvistavet.com)

Conjunctivitis in cats is usually of viral origin and usually that means a herpesvirus (feline herpesvirus-1 to be specific) infection. Herpesviruses grow in the tissues of the body that interface with the environment, such as the upper respiratory tissues and conjunctivae. The infection begins with an initial phase which is usually the most severe in terms of symptoms. This phase resolves but the virus itself does not go away; instead, it retreats into the trigeminal ganglion (a neurologic structure in the head) where the patient’s immune system holds it prisoner.

In times of stress, the immune system is taxed and the virus is able to escape from the ganglion, traveling out via the nerves exiting the ganglion. The result is the return of symptoms. In this way, the infection is permanent but the symptoms of the infections come and go.

Symptoms include conjunctivitis as described above but also nasal and respiratory symptoms such as sniffles, runny nose, and fever, basically the symptoms of upper respiratory infection. As mentioned, the first episode is generally the worst and subsequent episodes are more mild.

 

BABY KITTENS: A SPECIAL SITUATION

Herpes infection is extremely common in young kittens especially those facing other stresses (fleas, poor nutrition, environmental cold etc.). Feral kittens, waifs of the streets, outdoor kittens, shelter kittens etc. are all high risk for herpes infection. Young kittens can produce so much ocular discharge that their eyes gum closed sealing the infected secretions around the eye. It is important that the eyelids be opened manually to allow drainage of secretions as well as application of medicine. The swelling of the conjunctivae can be so severe that the eye itself is not visible.

In severe cases, the eye can rupture and become permanently blinded. Treatment is crucial and response to topical therapy is usually dramatic.

As mentioned, herpes infection typically causes respiratory signs as well: snotty nose, congestion, etc.. These signs can result in life-threatening loss of appetite and dehydration in a young kitten, while signs are generally minor in an adult cat whose immune system is mature. Kittens with obvious discomfort should be examined by a veterinarian. Oral antibiotics will most likely be needed and sometimes hospitalization is also necessary for proper supportive care.


Kitten with herpes upper respiratory infection.
(Photocredit: Kalumet via Wikimedia Commons)

Very young kitten with herpes conjunctivitis.
(original graphic by marvistavet.com)



(original graphic by marvistavet.com)

ADULT CATS

Since kittens are so commonly affected with herpes, it is not unusual to find oneself in possession of an adult cat with a history of herpes infection. These individuals will have recurring conjunctivitis in times of stress. Typical signs include squinting slightly in one eye, a noticeable increase in ocular discharge (usually brownish in color), redness of the conjunctivae, or all of the above.

HOW DO WE KNOW IT IS HERPES?

There are several feline infectious diseases that can cause conjunctivitis: basically all the agents that contribute to feline upper respiratory infection also cause conjunctivitis. Frequently they are present in combination. The chances are that it will not be worthwhile to determine which agents are present; it is more practical to treat for bacterial agents and secondary bacterial infections first and then see if antiviral medications turn out to be needed.

That said, if one really wants to know if herpes is present or not, a PCR ("polymerase chain reaction") test is probably the best test to run. This test is able to detect even small amounts of herpes DNA and is much more sensitive than the prior form of testing which involved antibody levels. The problem is that herpes infection is so extremely common that most cats in any given area are going to test positive, indicating they are harboring the virus in their bodies. Having a herpes infection is not the same as having an active herpes infection so testing a cat will determine if the cat is harboring herpes but will not determine if herpes is presently active.

So how do we know it's herpes? We probably will not know for sure but if a stressed cat has conjunctivitis involving the cornea, the chances are that herpes is afoot.

 

HOW CAN WE TREAT IT?

There are several treatment methods that can be combined in the treatment of feline herpes eye infections:

  • Topical Antibiotics
    Topical antibiotics quell secondary bacterial invaders and are helpful in controlling the severity of symptoms because secondary bacterial infections frequently complicate herpes conjunctivitis. It is important to realize that antibiotics do not affect the herpesvirus itself; they only work on secondary bacteria; however, often this is enough to make the cat comfortable until the virus goes dormant.
  • Topical Anti-virals
    There are several eyedrops available that actually act directly against the herpesvirus. They include: idoxuridine (no longer commercially available and must be obtained from a compounding pharmacy), Viroptic® (trifluorothymidine), and Vira-A® (vidarabine). These medications are relatively expensive and typically require administration five times daily with the exception of cidofovir which accumulates in the eye tissues and allows for twice daily dosing.
  • Oral Lysine
    Herpesviruses as a group are highly dependent on the presence of an amino acid called “arginine.” Without arginine, a herpesvirus cannot reproduce. The amino acid “lysine” is taken up by the virus in favor of arginine. We can take advantage of this situation by saturating the virus with lysine and thus suppressing the virus’ ability to replicate. Lysine is readily available in most health food stores as a tablet or capsule. One should be sure that the formula used is free of the preservative “propylene glycol” as cats can have blood reactions against this compound. Alternatively, many feline lysine products are now available. These include chewable treats, gels, and granules. A month or so of supplementation is required in order to determine if supplementation has been helpful.

It should probably be noted that some infections lend themselves to prevention by the vaccination process and others do not. Herpes rather does not. This means that vaccination of healthy cats does not prevent infection for feline herpes; what it does do is lead to less severe signs. Vaccination against feline herpes has been deemed helpful but one should understand that, in this case, the goal is not total prevention of infection but palliation.

 

EOSINOPHILIC KERATITIS: A POSSIBLE RESULT OF CHRONIC INFECTION

An especially unpleasant possible outcome of feline herpes infection involves thick white plaques forming on the surface of the eye. A scraping from the plaque can be examined under the microscope for white blood cells called eosinophils and if they are found, the diagnosis of eosinophilc keratitis is confirmed. The plaques represent an inappropriate immunologic reaction to the virus and immune suppressive topical medications are needed to suppress the reaction. Lifelong treatment is typically necessary.

CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM: ANOTHER POSSIBLE RESULT OF CHRONIC INFECTION

The Persian breed appears to be particularly predisposed to this reaction to the herpes virus. Here, a section of the cornea actually dies and turns black or dark brown. The fastest route to resolution involves surgical removal of the dead tissue and application of a tissue graft. Referral to a veterinary ophthalmologist is necessary for this type of procedure. Non-surgical management is possible with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory topicals but, again, a specialist is best consulted should this complication of infection arise.

CAN HUMANS GET FELINE HERPES? CAN CATS GET HUMAN HERPES?

Happily, humans and cats cannot share their herpes viruses. Feline herpes is contagious among cats only and human herpes is contagious among humans only.

  

Page last updated: 9/16/2017