Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

3850 Grand View Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066

(310)391-6741

marvistavet.com

PRADOFLOXACIN

(for veterinary information only)

 

BRAND NAME: VERAFLOX

 

AVAILABLE AS
ORAL SUSPENSION
(TABLETS IN THE U.K.)

 

BACKGROUND

Human beings have been at odds with microbes since the beginning of time and the quest for new medications continues even today. When sulfa drugs came on the scene in the 1940's, an "age of antibiotics" was born and a new dimension had opened in the combat against microbes. From there a proliferation of antibiotics developed, each new medication exploiting a different aspect of bacterial metabolism until it seemed that the war on microbes would soon be won.

Despite this progress, one particular bacterial species remained seemingly invincible: Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This species of bacteria was able to change its antibiotic susceptibility with each antibiotic exposure, become resistant to multiple drugs in response to every medication used against it. Eventually, the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics was developed and there was finally a way to kill Pseudomonas fairly reliably but the price was that medication was injectable only, necessitating hospitalization for the patient, and potential kidney damage could result with prolonged use.

A major breakthrough against Pseudomonas came with the development of the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (starting with enrofloxacin for animals and ciprofloxacin for humans). These medications are active against many bacterial types including Pseudomonas. They are available as oral medications and are not associated with the serious side effects that plagued the aminoglycoside group.

Enrofloxacin became widely used in both dogs and cats but before long a problem with feline use came to light. Quinolone antibiotics accumulate in the feline retina and cause decreased vision and even blindness which may or may not be reversible. It soon became clear that there was a need for quinolone antibiotics with as little affinity for the feline retina as possible. The product would ideally be in a formulation palatable to cats and convenient to use. Pradofloxacin is the result of these research developments. Segments of DNA to be used in protein production must be uncoiled by an enzyme called DNA gyrase. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics deactivate DNA gyrase making the reading of DNA impossible. The bacterial cell dies. Mammalian DNA gyrase is of a completely different shape and remains untouched.


DNA Double Helix
(Photocredit: NIH Public Image Library)

 

HOW THIS MEDICATION WORKS

Fluoroquinolones act by deactivating bacterial enzymes necessary for the transcription of DNA. DNA is very tightly coiled in order to fit inside a cell.

  

HOW THIS MEDICATION IS USED

As mentioned, pradofloxacin has activity against Pseudomonas but unlike the other quinolone antibiotics, it has good activity against anaerobic bacteria which makes it useful against bite wound abscesses.

Pradofloxacin comes as an oral suspension which should be kept at room temperature in its original packaging. A dosing syringe is provided to facilitate accurate dosing. Shake the bottle before drawing up the dose.

Pradofloxacin is typically dosed once or twice daily. If a dose is accidentally skipped, do not double up on the next dose. Pradofloxacin enters the body much more readily if given on an empty stomach but can be given with a small amount of food if nausea is an issue.

Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with kidney or liver disease.

Dairy products contain calcium which will bind quinolone antibiotics so cheese etc. should not be used in as a treat or reward after dosing.

The product is good for 60 days after the container has been opened.

  

SIDE EFFECTS

As with most oral medications, the most common side effects of pradofloxacin are related to the GI tract: vomiting, diarrhea, reduced appetite. Providing a small amount of food should mitigate this problem.

Pradofloxacin is not approved for use in dogs in the U.S. because of bone marrow suppression issues. In fact, after 7 days of use in the cat, the chance of bone marrow suppression increases. Inappropriate weakness, bruising, or pallor of gums would be signs of a problem.

  

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS

Sucralfate (a medication used to treat stomach ulcers) may bind ciproflxacin and prevent it from entering the body. These medications should be given at least 2 hours apart if they are used together. A similar phenomenon occurs with magnesium and calcium-containing antacids.

Theophylline (an airway dilator) blood levels may be higher than usual if this medication is used concurrently with prodofloxacin. The dose of theophylline may need to be reduced.

If pradofloxacin is used with oral cyclosporine (an immunosuppressive medication used for inflammatory bowel disease), the kidney damaging properties of cyclosporine may become worse.

Medications or supplements containing iron, zinc, magnesium or aluminum will bind pradofloxacin and prevent absorption into the body. Such medications should be separated from pradofloxacin by at least 2 hours.

  

CONCERNS AND CAUTIONS

Pradofloxacin should not be used in pregnant, or nursing cats and its safety has not been evaluated in kittens under 12 weeks of age.

Page posted: 3/19/2016
Page last updated: 8/88/2021